Parboiling in Thailand and the World

Parboiling in Thailand and the World

Parboiling in Thailand and the World

Page 1 of 10 Kasetsart University June 8th, 2011 Lecture abstract Parboiling in Thailand and the World Content • Introduction • History • Relevance in the different cultures • Markets – Facts and figures • Process – Preparation – parboiling – drying – milling – co-products • Outlook – discussion Introduction THE PARBOILING PROCESS • The terms “thermal processing”, “gelatinization” or “parboiling” define the operations needed for the production of “gelatinized” or “parboiled” rice. The “raw” cereal undergoes these operations before hulling. • Water and heat are two essential elements to transform the natural cereal into “parboiled” cereal. • After soaking in water, followed by steam heating, the product has to be dried for mechanical processing (milling). • The purpose of hydrothermal or parboiling processing is to generate physical, chemical and organoleptic changes with corresponding financial, nutritional and practical advantages: The main changes occurring to the grain structure are the following: • The water-soluble substances (vitamins and mineral salts) are dissolved and spread inside the endosperm, enriching their original distribution and concentration; • The crystalline structure, characteristic of the rice starch grain is transformed in an homogeneous and compact mass made of gelatinized starch; • The starch grains, due to soaking effect, inflate and expand in order to fill any space surrounding them with consequent elimination of cracks existing in endosperm; • The cereal moisture content is taken to the optimal level regardless of the moisture content before the process; • Enzymes present are partially or totally inactivated; • Oily soluble substance, contained in the germ and in the bran layers, are enriched, as other components are dissolved • All unwanted processes, both latent and ongoing (germination, proliferation of molds or spores, eggs, grubs, pupas, adult insects), are completely inactivated or eliminated. Page 2 of 10 History • More than 1000 years ago parboiling was done in simple clay pots in the earth to improve „shelf life“ and the resistance against insects. • Only in this century parboiling has been developed from a farm or village activity to an industrial process. • Franco Gariboldi from Italy has experimented in his own rice mill and invented several processes to gelatinize rice. • He was active in promoting his technology as advisor to the FHO. • The technology was then picked up by various engineering companies in the USA, Germany, India and others. • Franco Gariboldi died in 1995. • Today Gariboldi„s assistant engineer and scholar, Mr. Salvatore Appiani carries forward the know-how and builds parboiling plants with his company STA Studio Technico Appiani with his world leading technology. • The technology in Thailand is quite simple and restricts the success of the Thai parboilers on their international export market. The technical differences will be discussed in the chapter „processes“ Relevance in the different cultures • Parboiled rice is not part of the East and South East Asian cuisine. It is not suitable and not appreciated in the „chop stick countries“ • Parboiled rice is appreciated in India and Pakistan for its good storage properties and special taste • It is also appreciated in North America and Europe for easy cooking properties and low breakage in the milling process. • Catering services can keep parboiled rice hot for a long time without damage to the rice. • Private households prefer the simple cooking instructions • African countries have adopted parboiled rice in their local recipes because of the good storage properties reducing the storage losses • The Gulf countries have developed a high end market of parboiled Basmati rice. Page 3 of 10 Markets – Facts and figures Qualities • Type and quality of raw product – Long grain – Basmati rice – Medium grain parboiled • Colour: – Crystal white parboiled – Medium yellow – Golden parboiled World Rice production Is around 450 Mio t per year. Only around 28 Mio t/year are traded internationally. Share of Parboiled Rice on the total consumption • There are no official statistics available for parboiled rice. According to expert„s opinions the shares of parboiled rice on the total consumption is: • EU: > 50% – Germany 75%, UK: 50%, France: 60% • USA: 66%, Canada: 75% • South America has a high share and is currently building several additional parboiling plants (Brazil) • Nigeria is the world„s biggest importer of parboiled rice • India has an old tradition and a high share of parboiled rice – 60% average, higher % in the South for tradition and also to compensate poor qualities. In the North they prefer raw rice in the home kitchen, but for parties with buffets where the rice needs to be kept long and for certain dishes (Birhiani) parboiled is preferred • Bangladesh consumes predominantly parboiled rice • The Gulf countries also have a high share of parboiled rice because it matches well with the local food Parboiled rice has an important share in Thailand‟s rice exports Page 4 of 10 Processing Cleaning Eliminate coarse and light impurities to ensure a clean and well controlled process Grading Thickness grading for a uniform parboiling result – No over-boiled or under-boiled grains Parboiling • Soaking and cooking depend on each other: A good process needs to optimize both processes • Soaking – parameters temperature and time – Clean water – Even process – soak every grain for the same time – Good control of the soaking temperature and soaking time • Cooking – parameters pressure and time – Pressure must be applied to produce medium and dark golden qualities – Al grains same time and same pressure – Good control of pressure and cooking time 3 processes • Batch process – Smaller capacities, each batch is controlled separately • Continuous pressure cooking process – High capacities, good process control • Gariboldi process – Smaller capacities, high flexibility, highest investment vertical batch plant • A batch is soaked (B) and then filled into the cooker (C). The cooker is then shut and pressurized for the cooking process. The product is then released into the drying section (D and E). Then the batch from the second soaking tank (B) is filled into the cooker and the cycle begins again Page 5 of 10 Continuous pressure cooking The soaking bins (B 1 – 5) are filled in sequence. For the continuous process, the soaking has to work with defined soaking and discharge times to feed the cooker continuously. The water temperature is ~ 60 C. The soaking time is ~ 4 to over 6 hours, depending on the type of rice. (product temp. 60 C, moisture 29 to 32%) The cooking time in the continuous pressure cooker (C) is 18 to35 min and the pressure 1 to 1.5 bar (abs) or even more for special purposes. The cooking time is controlled by the feed rate which is well synchronized with the soaking system. (product temp. 100 C, moisture 33%) Continuous ambient pressure cooking in Thailand • However, only for ambient pressure • Limited to bright colour qualities • No pressure reserves available for adjustments Drying for Continuous pressure cooking The first step drying can be done in a fluid bed dryer or similar device, eliminating the high surface moisture and using the high product temperature (product temp. ~ 80 C, moisture ~ 30 %) Dryer . Page 6 of 10 The main drying is done carefully in 3 passes with good tempering times between the passes: 30% -33% to 20%; 20% to 16%; 16% to 14%) Energy source is usually paddy husk, heat exchangers are recommended to comply with western health regulations Gariboldi Process Page 7 of 10 The process works in cycle times of 6 h Input is 2,5 t/h clean, graded paddy The soaking bins (B 1 – 2) hold 15 t each and are filled in sequence. Before filling the water, vacuum is drawn to speed up the water penetration. Once filled with water (~65 C), the tanks will be pressurized to reduce the soaking time to ~5 h. The autoclave (C) also takes 15 t. After filling, steam is directly injected and the system is pressurized. After the cooking process vacuum is drawn in the same vessel for drying. In addition indirect heating is applied. At the end of the cycle, dry (14%) hot product leaves the autoclave to the final cooling stage (E). No additional dryers are needed Comparison paddy / brown rice parboiling Input product paddy Input product Brown rice Market share 90% of parboiled rice is made of paddy world wide 10% brokens Less brokens, as the grains are hardened, before they leave the protecting husk More brokens: all brokens of the hulling process remain, few additional brokens in the polishing step Smell: 90% of the smell quality depends on the sanitation in the equipment, to avoid microbiological activities Aroma is slightly different to brown Depending on taste, especial in Asia, might be considered better smell Energy consumption: Same installed power, but process time is different, for example: Process time 6 hrs Process time 4,5 hrs, so less power consumption for steam and water Page 8 of 10 Comparison 10 t/h Continuous Steam Cooking System versus Gariboldi Technology Continuous Steam Cooking System Gariboldi Technology Raw product paddy paddy or brown rice Product preparation cleaning grading same same layout 2 lines @ 5 t/h 4 lines @ 2,5 t/h soaking 5 ambient air soaking tanks for semi-continuous processing 2 vacuum & pressure soaking tanks for batch processing to reduce soaking time Cooking process equipment Vertical pressure vessel with airlocks for feed and discharge of the product. Batch type horizontal rotating autoclave Cooking parameters Feed rate process time, Pressure range 0,3 to 0,5bar 0,4 to 2 bar Drying and tempering equipment Separate classical dryers Vacuum drying in the same autoclave plus cooling tower Consumptions for 10 t/h processing capacity consumption of saturated steam at 8 bar average / maximum 9500 Kg/h Max 5500 kg/h Consumption of industrial water 0 60 m³/h at 4 bar If installed recirculation group and additional cooling H20 tower the consumption estimate is 3m/h Consumption of drinking water 10 m³/h at 4 to 5 bar 10 m³/h at 4 to 5 bar Power requirement 550 KW installed 400 KW installed, 220 KW consumed Other criteria taste The vacuum technology improves the taste by conserving natural flavours and reducing the process time. Hygiene Highest hygiene, no conveying of whet paddy. Investment equipment (estimate, if all components are imported) Reduction is possible by manufacturing part of the equipment locally 1,9 Mio EUR, if all components are imported 5,9 Mio EUR, if all components are imported (recirculation group 70‟000 EUR) Personnel for operation Needs min, 2 person to run 24 h/day 1 person shifts only Cost of maintenance : the continuous system is more expensive that Gariboldi Technologies Flexibility on market Adjustable to different types of paddy, adjustment of colour Very high, wide range of raw products, colours and cooking properties can be produced – Besides possibilities to put brown rice intake – obtain special parboiled rice Page 9 of 10 A combination of the 2 technologies might be interesting: 5 t/h Continuous feed pressure vessel for the main stream product and 2 x 2.5 t/h Gariboldi technology for special and high end products Milling of parboiled rice • Hulling – High hulling degree, as hard grains allow a high roll pressure • Abrasive whitening – Less brokens – Sticky bran –  coarser stones –  strong aspiration, short ducts • Damaged grains develop black spots in the parboiling process: • Colour sorting is essential Bran oil extraction • Bran of parboiled rice is more stable than raw bran • Bran of parboiled rice contains more oil than raw bran Future Outlook • The world consumption of parboiled rice is growing due to changing preparation and eating habits • The most important improvements to the existing technology are: • Cleaning • Gravity separator and thickness grader • Regular change of soaking water • Water treatment plant for drinking water • Pressurized cooking • Waste water processing • Heat exchanger for drying • Uniform drying with good tempering Page 10 of 10 Leading technology in parboiling: Studio Technico Appiani appiani@stappiani.com www.stappiani.com Joachim Sontag • Business development • Rice technology and project management Joachim Sontag Sontag Consult Zargleben 3A D – 29487 Luckau T: +49 5844 976 908 M: +49 171 41 81 207 Mob in Thailand: +66 820 200 754 Skype: joachim.sontag e-mail: sontag@sontag-consult.com www.sontag-consult.com


Agustin Caceres

VP of Operations for LE Group Industries Speaks fluent English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian.

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